Science Fiction Book Review

 The Robot Rocket

by Carey Rockwell
Reviewed date: 2023 Sep 2
181 pages
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This is dreadful. The rocket science, the astronomy, the orbital mechanics, and the nuclear physics are wrong, even granting 1950s-era knowledge. The cover says that Willy Ley was "Technical Adviser" on this book. I hope they didn't pay him.

Science Fiction Book Review

 Between Planets

by Robert A. Heinlein
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 31
Rating: 3
190 pages
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It's a plot that public-key cryptography renders unnecessary, but hey, public-key cryptography hadn't been invented when Heinlein wrote it.

Science Fiction Book Review

 A Case of Conscience

by James Blish
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 30
Rating: 4
188 pages
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A classic. It's uneven in parts, but it gets bonus points for treating religion seriously. I look forward to reading again in twenty years.

Non-fiction Book Review

 Innovations & Attractions: Film History Essentials of the 1800s

by Jared Wheeler
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 29
641 pages
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Did I know I wanted to read a book about the film industry in the 1800s?

Did I enjoy the book?

Did I learn anything?
Yes. The invention of the motion picture camera was not a singular event. Many people, across the United States and Europe, independently invented moving pictures. The birth of the film industry, both technically and artistically, was a complicated and complex process, and much has been obscured by propaganda or lost to history.

Did I watch the films?
Of course! They are nearly all on YouTube. I looked them up myself until it occurred to me to ask the author if he had a YouTube playlist. Here it is: Innovations & Attractions: Film History Essentials of the 1800s [YouTube playlist]

And for good measure, here's a link to the book on Amazon. It's available in print or Kindle: Innovations & Attractions: Film History Essentials of the 1800s by Jared Wheeler.

Were the films rubbish? They were all rubbish, weren't they?
They are early silent films that show the limitations of the technology, but surprisingly the picture quality is better than I expected. That is, most of them are simply awful, but a few of them are well-preserved and the picture quality is astonishing. It turns out that the poor quality of these old films is largely due to their deterioration with age. The few that are preserved well give us a glimpse into what they all must have looked like to contemporary audiences.

And the color! More than a few of these films from the late 1800s were colorized. (By hand. Color photography was a ways off yet.) I wasn't expecting color movies, but there they are. The author points out that a lot more color-tinted films existed, but the color prints wore out and many survive only in their uncolored versions.

Favorite film?
Le Manoir du diable (1896) (The House of the Devil) by Georges Méliès had me genuinely laughing. Well done.

Anything else?
I'm aghast at some of these early pioneers who became disillusioned and deliberately destroyed their own work.

Science Fiction Book Review

 Seed of the Dreamers

by Emil Petaja
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 26
Rating: 3
103 pages
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I enjoyed this book. It's not deep, but the plot moves fast. Famous characters from other well-known works of fiction make cameos, and are delightful and almost never wear out their welcome. Petaja lets us enjoy the appearances of famous characters that we know and love from popular books (and films!), but never forgets to advance the plot too, so it doesn't degenerate into mere fan fiction. Thumbs up on this one.

Starcop Brad Mantee
Star Control keeps order in the galaxy by ruling with a brutal iron fist. Loyal Starcops like Brad Mantee are the cogs that keep the machine in motion. In particular, Brad is delivering Dr. Milton Lloyd to the Sunnystar mental facility for incarceration. Unluckily for Brad, when he lands his spaceship he's met on the landing pad not by the Sunnystar staff, but by a beautiful young woman. This is unusual and out of order. Brad is discombobulated just enough that the woman distracts him, which allows Lloyd to escape—which he does, right back into Brad's ship. Moments later Lloyd blasts off in Brad's spaceship. Brad's perfect service record is ruined. Oh bother.

Harriet Lloyd
The woman explains that she is Harriet Lloyd, Dr. Lloyd's long-lost daughter. She has been searching for him for years. Brad doesn't care to sit around at Sunnystar and answer a lot of questions about why he lost Dr. Lloyd, and Harriet wants to locate her father, so they agree to team up and search for Dr. Lloyd together. They take Harriet's spaceship and set off. Harriet uses her ESP sense to direct them.

Illegal fiction books
Harriet and Brad get to know each other. Harriet calls Brad a big phony, and says she knows all about his secret stash of illegal books. Brad is surprised and concerned. Star Control has outlawed fiction, but Brad (despite being a loyal Starcop) has a collection of ancient books such as Treasure Island that he's read and re-read dozens of times.

Virgo and the emerald halos
They arrive at the planet Dr. Lloyd landed on. Brad lands the spaceship, but they must traverse on foot to locate Dr. Lloyd. The planet is unexplored and primitive. There is abundant plant life but no sign of animals larger than insects. Curiously, the insects have what Harriet dubs an "emerald halo" about them. It is a “nimbus of greenish specks”, a “band of coruscating flecks…a kind of mobile coronet.” Harriet dubs the planet Virgo, after her zodiac sign and because the planet is virgin and unexplored.

King Solomon's Mines
Brad and Harriet are ambushed by a war party of black African tribesmen. Brad recognizes them. They are Kukuanas, and their leader is named Infadoos. They are characters from the classic H. Rider Haggard book King Solomon's Mines. Someone or something has brought to life the characters from Brad's books. Curiously, the Kukuanas have emerald halos just like the insects.

The Word
Infadoos and his Kakuanas are loyal to the Word, which is the plot of the book from which they were taken. Brad pretends to be Alan Quatermain (Petaja spells it Alan, though Haggard's character was Allan) but Infadoos is not fooled for long. Infadoos orders their execution for blasphemy against the Word.

Zartan, Morlocks, and more
Who should rescue them but Zartan and a herd of elephants! Yes, due to copyright issues, this is Zartan, Lord Staygroke rather than Tarzan, Lord Greystoke. I have no words.

Tarzan, I mean Zartan, and his elephants have emerald halos. So do all the other book characters that Brad and Harriet meet—and there are a lot. There are dwarfs from Princess Ida; or, Castle Adaman by Gilbert and Sullivan. There is Deena from the Morlocks of H. G. Wells's The Time Machine. Later they find the characters from As You Like It by Shakespeare. Petaja moves quickly between characters and none of them overstay their welcome.

The love interest
Brad the loyal Starcop is beginning to soften. Harriet is having an effect on him.

Harriet kept surprising him with her buoyancy, her resilience, her intuitive intelligence that kept him on his toes. Maybe it was all that reading: Brad was the all-man, would-be hero; Deena was the helpless, clinging female.

Harriet wasn't that way. She had trailed her father halfway across the galaxy, alone. It took brains and guts and a lot most of the book women didn't have. They were their heroes' ego-feeders. Harriet is—

Well, she's damn special, and while she irritates the hell out of me every once in a while, she also—never mind. Later.

Shangri-La Shamure
For copyright reasons Brad and Harriet run into Tsung from Shamure rather than Chang from Shangri-La. The book is Lost Horizon by James Hilton. I had to look that up. You're welcome. Tsung is thoughtful and philosophical, and he understands when Brad explains that he's a character in a book. It's all moot though, because now The Mind intervenes.

The Mind, the Egg, and the Wizard
The intelligence that brought the book characters to life has decided it's time to meet Brad and Harriet face to face. It brings them to itself. What is itself? A dome that's shaped like a giant egg. The intelligence transports them inside the egg, and suddenly we're in the Wizard of Oz. But it's the 1939 MGM movie version, not the 1900 L. Frank Baum book version, and there's no bowdlerization of names to avoid copyright concerns. This is truly odd. Anyway, moving on. Brad is the Scarecrow, Harriet is Dorothy, and the alien intelligence is the Wizard. The Wizard explains that he's a single cell of a cosmic entity called The Mind. The Mind seeds planets with life, life that will later be useful for them when they arrive to use the planet. The Wizard seeded this planet using local resources and the plots of Brad's books. Fun, right? But having learned what he can from Brad, Harriet, and the book people he animated, the Wizard must confer with the rest of the Mind to determine the next steps. He shoos them out, and sends Dr. Lloyd with them.

Dr. Lloyd, but not Dr. Lloyd
The Wizard fixed Dr. Lloyd's body but not his mind. The man is an empty husk. Tsung and his crew take care of Lloyd while Brad journeys into the forest to meet and confer with as many book people as he can find. He's up to something.

Some time later, the Wizard calls Brad and Lloyd back to himself. After conferring with the rest of The Mind, the Wizard has decided that what he's done on this planet is a mistake, and The Mind always expunges its mistakes. Oh dear. The Wizard will eliminate Brad, Harriet, Dr. Lloyd, and all the book people.

Emerald halos
But surprise! The Wizard didn't count on one thing: the emerald halos. He may have seeded Virgo with the book people, but the little emerald halos existed before the Wizard arrived and are pure Virgo. They are swarms of tiny symbiotes native to Virgo, and their presence gives the book people—the heroes that Brad recruited—the ability to break free from their programming and become independent creatures of free will. These creatures of free will very much desire to continue existing, so they attack the Wizard and kill him.

Happily ever after
Dr. Lloyd's body dies. Harriet and Brad are in love and neither has any reason to return to Star Control's domain. They will stay on Virgo and teach the book people how to move beyond their sacred Word and build a free and independent society.

Science Fiction Book Review

 The Blind Worm

by Brian M. Stableford
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 25
Rating: 0
149 pages
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It is the inconceivably distant future. Earth's oceans have dried up. Mankind is nearly extinct. The globe is dominated by the Wildland, a vegetable hive mind comprising all the plant life on the planet. John Tamerlane (aka the Black King) ventures from Ylle, one of the last remaining cities of man, to parley with Sum, the hive mind. Tamerlane wants the Gulf for his own, free of interference from the Wildland. In payment he will give Sum the key to the Quadrilateral.

The Quadrilateral
Oh, the Quadrilateral? It's the combined mental link of Sum's mind with the analogous minds in three other alternate universes. Sum believes that if he can complete the Quadrilateral he will become all-powerful. Tamerlane just wants some room to carve out his own little empire of man. Plus, he has the key to the Quadrilateral: a boy named Swallow, whose minds can forge the links to complete the Quadrilateral.

The Characters

  • John Tamerlane, the Black King, who rules over a ragged few men and desires the Gulf so he can establish a proper empire.
  • Swallow, a boy whose mind is the key to the Quadrilateral
  • Vanice Concuma, a hero. Employed by John Tamerlane.
  • Zea, Tamerlane's mistress. Her name sounds like sea and she looks like the ocean, which is foreshadowing.
  • Silver Reander, aka Shadow, one of the wild men who lives in the Wildland. Employed by John Tamerlane
  • Jose Dragon, an immortal man and the eternal antagonist of Sum.
  • The Blind Worm, who is neither a worm nor blind. He's a creation of Jose Dragon. He serves Sum.
  • Sum, the hive mind of the Wildland.
  • Warwand, who shows up in Part III.
  • Honorable mention: Ocean, the hive mind of the sea which Wildland/Sum vanquished eons ago by sucking up all the water and covering the globe with plant life. (Remember the foreshadowing about Zea?)

Part I: The Quadrilateral
John Tamerlane approaches Sum with the offer: Swallow will complete the Quadrilateral, and Sum will grant Tamerlane the Gulf. Sum agrees. Sum transports the whole party to an alternate universe, where Swallow completes the first link. Sum takes the group to a third universe, where Jose Dragon, who has sneaked into the group, tries to kill Swallow to prevent him from completing any more links. The Blind Worm kills Jose Dragon instead. Swallow completes the second link. The trip to the final universe goes awry when Zea pulls the group off track and they end up on a strip of beach on an ocean world in the wrong universe. You see, Zea is the last remaining bit of the long-vanquished Ocean. Vanice Concuma and Swallow drown. With Swallow dead, the key is gone. The Quadrilateral cannot be completed. Tamerlane will not get his Gulf.

In anger, Tamerlane attacks Zea, but Reander intervenes and is killed. Zea walks into the ocean and disappears in the waves. Then the Blind Worm reveals that he copied the key from Swallow's mind, so he now has the key. The Blind Worm completes the Quadrilateral. In payment, Sum grants him an entire universe. Tamerlane, on the other hand, gets abandoned on the ocean planet.

Part II: Blind God
This part is so, so bad. The Blind Worm is now the god of an entire universe. He creates copies of all the characters from the previous section and demands they fight each other. In particular he wants the other to kill Jose Dragon. There's something about the Blind Worm trying to overcome his programming by killing Jose Dragon, his creator. Never mind that the Blind Worm already killed Jose Dragon for real in the original universe. No, we need eight chapters of incomprehensible ramblings about philosophy and identity and the nature of free will. It's excruciating. This is neither a good story nor a compelling philosophy lecture; this is Stableford padding his word count with rubbish in order to reach full novel length.

Part III: The Army of the Dead
In the final section we abandon the Blind Worm and return to Tamerlane, stranded on the ocean planet. Somehow Reander/Shadow is alive again. Then a god-like entity called Warwand appears and then suddenly Reander/Shadow is dead again, but Vanice Concuma is alive. It makes no sense. Warwand sends Tamerlane and Concuma back to Earth to defend the Wildland from an army of undead men from the city in the great Gulf.

Wait, like, a zombie army?
Yes, a literal zombie army. Tamerlane and Concuma's job is to organize the few remaining men of Earth and defeat an army of dead people who are marching to burn and destroy the Wildland. It's a gruesome battle. They win, I think. Later it turns out that Warwand is the Blind Worm in disguise. I really think Stableford is making this up as he goes. Sum leaves to go inhabit the other universes with the Quadrilateral, and leaves the now-mindless Wildland on Earth. With no guiding mind, the Wildland will revert to its natural state and the oceans will return. But that will take hundreds of years, and in the meantime John Tamerlane, the Black King, can establish his little empire. The end.

The Blind God is so, so bad. Reviewer Bruce Gillespie called it "the second worst s f novel I've ever finished." (SF Commentary, #17, November 1970) My feelings are similar.

Rich Horton has has a medium-length review over at Strange at Ecbatan (Link here) and there's a longer review by Brett Bligh via the Wayback Machine (Link here).

Classic Literature Book Review

 The Trial

by Franz Kafka
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 15
Rating: 1
165 pages
Translated from the German by David Wyllie
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Maybe this is better in the original German, but this is a bad book. I read The Trial because I was familiar with the basic idea—a man is arrested but not told the charges against him, and must navigate a murky and labyrinthine bureaucracy—and I wanted to get more insight. But there isn't any more. That's all there is. One clever idea, and then 165 pages of monotony. There's no more insight to be gained beyond the first intriguing idea.

The idea of The Trial is worth knowing about, but you don't need to read the book to get that. A Wikipedia plot summary is sufficient. The actual reality of The Trial is that it's not worth reading.

One thing I found is that, the more I read The Trial, the less I believed any of it was real. (I mean real within the context of the story. Of course the book is a novel.) The entire trial makes more sense as a prolonged hallucination of a man going mad. Josef K. is a neurotic, unstable man, and his actions and reactions are not those of a mentally healthy person. He is living in a delusion. What challenges this interpretation, though, is the abrupt ending in which Josef K. is killed by the secret police.

Fantasy Book Review

 Alpha Centauri

by Robert Siegel
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 12
256 pages
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Overall impressions
Alpha Centauri is a work of Christian fantasy that is reminiscent of Narnia. But it's also unlike Narnia, in that so much of the text focuses on food, music, and the still beauty of un-despoiled nature. In that regard it reminded of Stargate by Pauline Gedge, in that both books emphasize the character's connection to nature and the environment around them, to the point that it becomes overwhelming and obnoxious. (But on that front Alpha Centauri is a minor offender where Stargate is a career felon.) It's a charming book, and it's a shame it's not better known.

Becky, an American girl from Massachusetts, travels to Britain with her father to visit his friend in Surrey. Once there, Becky makes a connection with one of the horses, Rebecca. In the middle of the night Rebecca wakes Becky up and she rides to the center of the forest. There, in a fog, they travel through the Eye of the Fog and are transported to a Britain in the deep, deep past.

Immediately Becky is captured by centaurs. Yes, this long-forgotten Britain is home to centaurs. Back at Silver Garth, the centaur village, the centaurs accuse Becky of being a Rock Mover. Becky doesn't know what a Rock Mover is, and she soon convinces them she's not one. Becky makes a friend in Lala, a young centaur girl, and finds an ally in her father Cavallos. Other centaurs, particularly Flimnos, are still skeptical of her. The centaurs decide to ask Scopas the seer for advice about what to do with her.

Scopas says Becky must go see the First Ones. The First Ones are an ancient people, and they keep to themselves mostly. To see them it is a journey of several days. Becky and a group of centaurs lead by Cavallos set out, but on the way Becky and Cavallos are kidnapped by Rock Moves.

Rock Movers
The Rock Movers are humans, and they are bad. They take Becky and Cavallos to Longdreth (which will, eons later, be called London). Becky is trained as a palace servant, while Cavallos is tortured for information about the centaurs. The Rock Movers distrust all other races, and they seek to exterminate the centaurs, and they hope that Cavallos will reveal the locations of the last remaining centaur villages. Additionally, Cavallos is slated to be sacrificed to their god Phogros at the Feast of First Harvest.

The Rock Movers are technically ruled by a King, Rhadas, but he is a young man and the real power rests with his regent, Targ. When Targ gives Becky away to Faloor, Ack-Lonthean ambassador, to be a wife for his son Josef, Becky knows she must escape quickly or be carried away from Britain forever. She confides in a maidservant, Neetha, who brings her secretly to Rhadas. It turns out Rhadas is just as much under Targ's thumb as everyone else, and he would like nothing more than to undermine Targ's power. So he helps Becky and Cavallos escape from Longdreth.

First Ones
Becky and Cavallos make their way back to Silver Garth. Scopas the seer reminds Becky that she still must go to the First Ones. Much time has been lost, and this time, Becky must go alone. She goes. It's a long journey, and when she arrives she discovers the First Ones are human, not centaurs.

Becky spends much time talking with a First One named Menos. He tells her much about the ancient history of the world. In particular he describes the fall of man, and how they brought misery to the world. (The First Ones appear to be unaffected by the Fall, and I was never sure whether they were unfallen, sinless humans, or whether they are a pre-Adamic race.) Menos talks about the Shaper (who is clearly God), the Healer (who is clearly Jesus) and the Warper (who is clearly Satan.) He also quotes a long prophecy which has several stanzas that clearly refer to the cross and the atoning blood of Christ. These things are not spelled out as such, but left as clues for the discerning reader.

Menos says also that the centaurs are not originally from Earth. They are from Alpha Centauri, and can travel there through the Path to the Stars. Under the right conditions, the Singing Stone (which happens to be nearby) opens up into a Path to the Stars. It used to open freely, but since the fall of man has not opened in generations. However, the prophecy indicates that Becky can open it one final time and allow the centaurs to return to the safety of their ancestral home. She must bring the centaurs to the Singing Stone before the season gets too late, or it will never open. She has four days.

To Alpha Centauri
Becky finds the centaurs and they agree that the Path to the Stars is their best hope. Concerningly, the Singing Stone is several days' march away, and they have women and children with them. But it's worse than that: The Rock Movers have raised an army and are chasing the centaurs. In a desperate bid, the centaurs send their women and children ahead and the warriors stay behind to lay a trap for the Rock Movers. It works. The centaurs rout the Rock Mover army. But it may not be enough. The Rock Movers regroup and pursue. In the end it comes down to a matter of hours, but the centaurs arrive at the Singing Stone. Becky opens the Path to the Stars, and the centaurs leave Earth forever to live in the sinless paradise of Alpha Centauri.

Back on Earth, Rhadas overthrows Targ, marries Neetha, and takes his rightful place as ruler of the Rock Movers. He swears off violence and hatred, and vows that his people will live peacefully. Becky returns to her own time through the Eye of the Fog.

Science Fiction Book Review

 Their Majesties' Bucketeers

by L. Neil Smith
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 11
Rating: 1
182 pages
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The lamviin: all aliens, no humans
Their Majesties' Bucketeers is one of those rare science fiction books that contains no human characters. The story is set on the planet Sodde Lydfe, which is inhabited by a race called lamviin. Lamviin trilaterally symmetrical, with three sexes. They have hard carapaces, can regrow limbs and eyes, but perish quickly if the carapace is pierced or broken. Water makes their shells soft, and they avoid it; they live in the desert. When our story opens they've had an industrial revolution and the beginnings of electrification. They have telephones, electric lights, and steam engines, but beast-drawn carriages—the watu (plural watun) being analogous to our horse—are common.

Lamviin is the race or species name, analogous to the word mankind or humanity. A single individual is a lam, and plural is lamn. Lamviin have three sexes. Each individual has a three-part name, and based on the sex a different part of the name is emphasized. For example, Agot Edmoot Mav is male and is familiarly addressed as Mav, while Liimevi Myssmo Law is female and is familiar addressed as Myssmo.

  • Male
    Pronouns: he/him/his
    Formal address: Gentlelam/gentlelamn
    Example name: Agot Edmoot Mav
    The males are dominant. However, the world is changing and professions once exclusive to males are being opened up. Still, it's a patriarchy, and when a trine marries the others take the male's last name.
  • Female
    Pronouns: she/her/hers
    Formal address: Lady/ladies
    Example name: Liimevi Myssmo Law
    The book offers surprisingly few details about the female lamviin.
  • Surmale
    Pronouns: rhe/rher/rhers
    Formal address: Lurry/lurries
    Example name: Mymysiir Offe Woom
    The main viewpoint character is surmale, so we learn a fair bit. Surmales are subordinate in society to the males, although there are more professional opportunities opening up. Surmales tend to be smaller than other adults, and they lack the characteristics of adults; that is, they look like overgrown children.
  • Children
    Pronouns: rhe/rher/rhers
    Lamviin children are of indeterminate sex. They do not develop sex characteristics until they mature, at which point they either develop into males or females—or do not develop, and become adult surmales. It's not revealed whether the sex is actually determined at birth and merely becomes apparent in adulthood, or whether the sex is actually indefinite and a given individual could (depending on environmental factors, say) develop into any of the three sexes.

The planet, the people, and the politics
The planet, as mentioned, is Sodde Lydfe. The story takes place on the island of Foddu, which is ruled by the Empire of Great Foddu. (Over on the continent but barely figuring into the story is the Podfettian Hegemony.) Most Fodduans support the royal family, at least publically, but there are various flavors of Unarchists that cause trouble. It is not a strict monarchy though: there is a Parliament with three houses: the Lezynsiin (or Upper House), the Nazemynsiin (or Middle House), and the Mykodsedyetiin (or Lower House.) The state religion is the Church of the Martyred Trine, which most Fodduans nominally belong to, although there are breakaway sects.

Lamviin do not drink water, but they do eat food, sometimes including soup made with oil. They also have vices analogous to Earth vices: they take kood, which is served in a fancy kood service sort of like tea. Kood is (I think) vapors inhaled from a burning wick. Presumably very pleasant vapors. Lamviin also juice, which is imbibing of electricity; it is intoxicating and is analogous to alcohol.

Things to note, both annoying and fun
One irritating thing is all the familiar Earth things with new names. For example, ascension = evolution. unarchists = republicans. Nonades = decadates, octaries = centuries. (OK I guess that part is cool.) And I did like the off-hand way the author slipped in a reference to nine-day weeks. Cool. But one of the biggest problems was just trying to take in all the new vocabulary, while also deciphering a whole new alien culture, plus trying to map that all back onto stuff in Earth history—because it does really all map back to stuff in our history. And the alien names are all so unpronounceable. That never helps.

The plot
Anyway, on to the plot synopsis.

Our narrator is Mymy, a surmale paracauterist employed by the Bucketeers. That is, rhe is neither male nor female, and rher job is analogous to a paramedic employed by the fire department—though in this case, the lamviin (the name for this species of alien) being averse to water, fires are put out with sand. Sand is carried in buckets (hence, Bucketeers) or pumped and sprayed through hoses (those must be some pumps.)

Mymy's friend is Mav, an Extraordinary Inquirer for the Bucketeers, which means he (for he is male) investigates crimes. So I guess the Bucketeers have grown to encompass police work as well as firefighting. Anyway, Mav is trying to introduce the idea of forensic evidence and deductive reasoning to his superiors, and it's not going well. So this will be a Sherlock Holmes pastiche.

Srafren Rotdu Rizmou, Prof.
The learned professor gives a public lecture on rher (for rhe is surmale) new theory of ascension, which is evolution by another name. During the lecture, which both Mav and Mymy attend, a bomb kills him. Now the game is afoot. Mav is Sherlock Holmes and Mymy is Watson.

An aside
I'm not impressed so far. The author has an interminably long debate between a fringe religious leader and the main character, which just so happens to parallel exactly the stereotype of an argument about evolution between a Creationist and an enlightened, rational scientist. It’s boring, it’s mean spirited, and I don’t read science fiction to be fed poor social propaganda. For that I read Facebook comments.

The end
It's a locked room murder mystery. After many boring and interminable pages, Inquirer Mav solves the case. I guess, technically, the clues were there. At least as to the location of the bomb. The answer for how it was detonated did not convince me. Nor did the identity of the perpetrator.

Sorry, this one is not for me. It was a chore to read from the first page to the last.

Christian Living Book Review

 Emotionally Healthy Spirituality

by Peter Scazzero
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 7
240 pages
It's Impossible to be Spiritually Mature While Remaining Emotionally Immature
Updated Edition
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Peter Scazzero's book Emotionally Healthy Spirituality is a psychology book, not a book on theology or doctrine. There is biblical content in the book, but it exists largely to demonstrate that these psychology concepts are compatible with Christianity. I mention this because most of the critical reviews I've found misunderstand the book completely and are approaching it as a work of theology; or they understand it but reject modern psychology out of hand.

There are eight chapters in this Updated Edition (the first edition had ten chapters.) I haven't read the first edition so my comments only apply to this updated edition.

In brief: Scazzero talks about:

  • Symptoms of emotional immaturity

Then he talks about same ways we can become more emotionally mature:

  • Dealing with the past
  • Handling grief and loss
  • Handling conflict

Finally, he talks about some Christian spiritual practices to incorporate into your life.

  • Christian practices: Daily Office, Sabbath, and the Rule of Life

That's it. The Christian spiritual practices he presents don't seem well connected to the psychological concept of emotional maturity. They are fine practices, to be sure, but he hasn't drawn the connection between them and emotional maturity.

Overall: there are some good ideas and good thoughts in Emotionally Healthy Spirituality. However: they are packaged with sketchy scholarship; questionable Scripture use; disparaging, unfair, and overbroad criticisms of the American church; and some just plain wrong teaching. This is not a dangerous book—to the contrary, it will probably be very helpful to some people—but I hesitate to recommend it. Surely there is something better out there.

Chapter 1: The Problem of Emotionally Unhealthy Spirituality
Something is Desperately Wrong
Scazzero starts out by describing his life as an emotionally immature, insecure man who felt compelled to say yes and agree to any demand asked of him as a pastor. It is not a pretty picture. Scazzero was immature, had never thought about much less confronted the patterns of his family of origin; he'd never examined his own feelings or unconscious thought patterns. He lived his life reacting, but never examining the feelings and motivations that drove his actions. Much of his life was driven by the need to keep up the image of a good pastor, but this image came at the expense of his family life and his own well-being.

Next, Scazzero explains how he came to understand the “link between emotional maturity and spiritual maturity.” (p21) By remaining emotionally immature, he stunted his spiritual growth and he damaged himself and those closest to him.

Aside: emotional immaturity affects all people, not just Christians or religious folks. Scazzero identified the patterns of immature behavior in his own life, but he hasn't connected it to anything uniquely Christian. He's about to attempt to do so, though.

Scazzero lists ten signs of emotionally unhealthy spirituality. He doesn't say this (perhaps because he doesn't believe it?) but emotionally unhealthy spirituality isn't distinct or separate from just being emotionally unhealthy. This is merely the way that emotional stuntedness manifests itself in the life of a committed Christian.

Here is the list. The list items are from Scazzero, and the short descriptions are my summarizations.

  1. Using God to run from God - e.g., using theology as a cudgel or a shield to avoid the harder work of loving people and helping them
  2. Ignoring anger, sadness, and fear - e.g., refusing to acknowledge negative emotions because to do so would be akin to a lack of faith
  3. Dying to the wrong things - e.g., giving up the good things that make us happy
  4. Denying the impact of the past on the present - e.g., refusing to see how our experiences shape us, insisting that because we are new creations in Christ that our past or our family of origin is meaningless
  5. Dividing life into "secular" and "sacred" components - e.g., getting that spiritual high at church or in Bible study, but it never translates into our day-to-day lives
  6. Doing for God instead of being with God - a need to always be serving, never enjoying God. Measuring spiritual growth by how much we do for the Kingdom of God.
  7. Spiritualizing away conflict - refusing to address and resolve conflict out of fear that even acknowledging conflict is a sign of spiritual weakness or failure.
  8. Covering over brokenness, weakness, and failure - e.g., keeping up appearances is more important than actually dealing with problems
  9. Living without limits - e.g., lacking the ability to say no to others.
  10. Judging other people's spiritual journey - thinking that our way of following Christ is the only way, or the best way, and not respecting that God may have called different people to different ways of living out the Christian life.

Rant: on page 29 Scazzero lists complaints about how Christians don't act any better than unbelievers, and he quotes that old canard that Christians divorce at the same rate as nonbelievers. It’s not true! It was never true, and I am angry that this lie has been used to beat up and denigrate Christians for over twenty years. The statistic came from a biased and flawed Barna survey and has been used repeatedly by those with an agenda to knock down and discourage Christians. The truth is that when two committed Christians (measured by regular church attendance, since we can't peer into the hearts and determine who is a genuine Christian) get married, they are far less likely to divorce than non-Christians.

The fact that Scazzero repeats this false statistic makes me question this whole book. He clearly hasn't done the bare minimum of research or he would know this popular divorce statistic is untrue. What else hasn't he researched properly?

Aside: I wonder whether emotional immaturity is really prevalent among Christians? Scazzero implies that it is. I haven’t seen or experienced that. This may be a book that is useful to some, but this isn't a uniquely or even particularly Christian phenomenon. To the contrary, there is a lot in Christian culture that encourages honesty, openness, and gives space (in men’s groups and women’s groups and small groups) to be vulnerable and explore one’s emotions. I’ve never encountered a situation where this was looked down on, and I can recall instances in Christian small group settings where healthy dialog was made possible that could not have happened outside the church. The church fosters healthy emotional growth.

Chapter 2: Know Yourself That You May Know God
Becoming Your Authentic Self
Chapter two begins with another story (pages 40-43) of Scazzero acting like an emotionally immature child whose hangups from his childhood and his need to maintain an image in front of his church members (most of whom would never notice or care) cause unnecessary friction in his marriage and family life. (His wife wanted to take the kids and spend a few weeks with her mother who lives near the coast. Scazzero, a grown adult human man with a career, a wife, and four kids, couldn't handle the idea of her being away from home without him.)

I guess I'm supposed to draw a lesson from the example, but he is so over-the-top that I just can’t see this being a problem most people in the church face. I’ve rarely (maybe never?) met anyone this insecure. On the other hand, not everyone advertises his emotional insecurity, so maybe I have met people like Peter Scazzero. In any case, not everyone has to be as far-gone as Scazzero was to benefit from some emotional coaching, and perhaps Scazzero has some useful things to say on the subject.

The chapter is about recognizing and understanding your own feelings. Scazzero introduces the idea that God created us with emotions and expects us to feel them—that he even speaks to us through them. Scazzero quotes a number of Bible verses that speak positively about a range of emotions; it's not just the positive emotions that are important and God-given, but the full range. He identifies eight categories of emotions (taken from Daniel Goleman's book Emotional Intelligence, and says it's OK and expected to feel them all. The eight categories are:

  • anger
  • sadness
  • fear
  • enjoyment
  • love
  • surprise
  • disgust
  • shame

Aside: I still think the church does a pretty good job of allowing Christians to experience the full range of emotions. I remember twenty years ago a whole Sunday school curriculum on the Psalms, where the imprecatory Psalms were taught. It's OK to feel in church, it's even encouraged and taught. Maybe Scazzero's church experience was different. Anyway, back to the text.

It is important, Scazzero says, to feel our emotions and understand what they are telling us.

God speaks to us through a knot in the stomach, muscle tension, trembling and shaking, the release of adrenaline into our bloodstream, headaches, and a suddenly elevated heart rate. God may be screaming at us through our physical body while we look for (and prefer) a more "spiritual" signal. The reality is that often our bodies know our feelings before our minds.

Aside: Scazzero doesn't mention this, at least not that I recall, but the reason we may prefer a "spiritual" signal over the messages from our physical body could be that many of us still believe (at least partly) in a form of spirit/matter dualism. We believe the spirit is good and the body is bad, the spirit is true and the body is false, the spirit is of God and the body is of this fallen world. Actually, Adam and Eve were created in the Garden of Eden with a body and a spirit. The body is part of who we are designed to be. We live in a fallen world, yes, and sin has touched us. But the body is not any more fallen than our spirit is. We should listen to both.

We need to feel our emotions, interrogate them, understand them. Because, ultimately, our actions follow from our emotions. If we don't understand them, we live life in a constant state of reacting but never understanding ourselves. That's a miserable way to live, for us and for those around us.

Complaint: this chapter should be broken into two chapters. The first half of the chapter is about how emotions are good things, created by God, that God expects us to feel them, he speaks to us through them, and it's important to acknowledge and understand our feelings. That's a complete idea right there. The second part of the chapter is about living authentically instead of living a life that is a facade put on for others. That's a separate idea, and it needs to be a separate chapter. Putting them together in a single chapter makes it confusing.

So I will correct Scazzero's mistake and add another chapter division right here.

Chapter 2 (again)
In the second part of chapter two Scazzero talks about how to live authentically, not putting on a facade for others. First he talks about ways we are tempted to live falsely:

  • Temptation One: I Am What I Do (Performance)
  • Temptation Two: I Am What I Have (Possessions)
  • Temptation Three: I Am What Others Think (Popularity)

On pages 59 and 60 Scazzero has a little scale that helps you identify whether you're an "undifferentiated" person living life as a performance for others, or whether you are a more "self-differentiated" person who lives a more authentic life. This is…fine. I'm not sure that the person who scores low on this scale would necessarily recognize that fact himself, though. This may be something that requires a trained counselor to help him realize.

OK, so if someone wants to get to the pot of gold and find this "self-differentiated" authentic life, how does one get there? Scazzero spends the rest of the chapter talked about four ways to grow in authenticity.

  1. Pay attention to your interior in silence and solitude - remove the distractions of constant activity. Be silent and alone. Pay attention to the thoughts and feelings that arise.
  2. Find trusted companions - You need community, other people to point out things about yourself that you don't notice about yourself.
  3. Move out of your comfort zone - To go from an emotionally immature life to an emotionally healthy life will require change, and change is rarely comfortable. Do the hard work to get to a better place.
  4. Pray for courage - It will be hard, there will be pushback and consequences, and you'll need the "Holy Spirit's power to continue."

Thoughts: Scazzero's advice seems solid. It is also pretty basic. Then again, a lot of those emotional maturity stuff isn't complicated—it's just hard.

Chapter 3: Going Back in Order to Go Forward
Breaking the Power of the Past
In chapter three Scazzero introduces the idea that family patterns can repeat themselves. That is, we are prone to falling into the same problematic patterns of behavior that our parents and grandparents played out. He illustrates this with examples from people he has counseled, and in biblical examples. E.g., Abraham favored Isaac over Ishmael, Isaac favored Esau over Jacob, Jacob favored Joseph (and later Benjamin) over his brothers. Each of these caused major ruptures in the family, but the same favoritism played out in each generation. Whatever the particular problems in your family of origin, these problems are impressed upon you during your formative years, and are likely to play out in your own life—unless you recognize them and change them.

Scazzero points out that when a person becomes a Christian, he is a new creature in Christ, but this does not mean he is not still affected by his past and his family of origin. To uncover and understand some of these patterns (many of which we may be unconscious of) Scazzero introduces the idea of a genogram: a method of drawing a family tree that visualizes not just the interpersonal relationships, but also information about nature and health of those various relationships.

Finally, Scazzero mentions something called the Beaver Model, which is a description of five different types of families, on a scale from "severely disturbed" to "optimal." This is…fine, I guess. The main difference seems to be the way the family handles disagreement and conflict, which is related to the idea of emotional health but I'm not convinced it's precisely the same thing.

So how does one fix a family that is less than optimal? Scazzero gives us the biblical example of Joseph. He 1) "Had a Profound Sense of the Bigness of God", 2) "Honestly Admitted the Sadness and Losses of His Family," 3) "Rewrote His Life Script According to Scriptures," and 4) "Partnered With God to Be a Blessing." I'm not sure that's helpful. I guess the main takeaway here is that Joseph didn't pretend everything was fine, he was willing to confront the problem, and he was willing to trust God through it all. I wish Scazzero would have spent more time on how Joseph tested his brothers before reconciling with them, but he doesn't go there.

Thoughts: This seemed a weak chapter. The biblical examples were a stretch and just didn't do it for me. In the Joseph example Scazzero skipped the biggest, most consequential part of the reconciliation story: the part where Joseph secretly tested his brothers and they demonstrated their changed hearts. To skip that is problematic. Nevertheless, the concept of examining one's own family of origin and one's extended family is a good one. Just leave it at that. Not everything needs to be justified directly from a Bible story.

Chapter 4: Journey Through the Wall
Letting Go of Power and Control
Scazzero talks about the stages of Christian spiritual growth, as well as the concept of hitting Walls that stop our growth. The stages are adapted from the work of Janet Hagberg and Robert Guelich in their book The Critical Journey: Stages in the Life of Faith, and are:

  • Stage 1: Life-Changing Awareness of God
  • Stage 2: Discipleship (learning)
  • Stage 3: The Active Life (serving)
  • Stage 4: Journey Inward
  • Stage 5: Journey Outward (from my inner life)
  • Stage 6: Transformed Into Love

The stages are cyclical, so we progress from Stage 6 back to Stage 1, and repeat the cycle. Eventually something interrupts our growth, and Scazzero calls this a Wall. The Wall typically takes the form of a crisis: "divorce, a job loss, the death of a close friend or family member," or other events of similar magnitude. Some people deal with the Wall, confront it, and move through it. Others stagnate and refuse to recognize or acknowledge the problem. Scazzero identifies that one marker of unhealthy emotional spirituality which gets stuck at a Wall is the inability or unwillingness to acknowledge and express the following feelings:

  • I am bewildered
  • I don't know what God is doing right now
  • I am hurt
  • I am angry
  • Yes, this is a mystery
  • I am very sad right now
  • Oh God, why have you forsaken me?

The emotionally healthy person will admit those things, and be able to process them and move forward. The emotionally unhealthy person will refuse to admit that anything is wrong, will hold on to platitudes like "in all things God works for good" but not take time to grieve, cry, and feel hurt.

Then Scazzero talks about something he calls the dark night of the soul, which he gets from the work of St. John of the Cross. This dark night of the soul is a requirement for progressing beyond a beginner stage of spirituality. It is a period of time where God removes from us the blessings he's previously given, where our prayer seems worthless, our worship dry, our Bible study fruitless. This dark night of the soul can last months or years. It's a testing of some kind, and when we emerge from it our faith is deeper, our relationship and knowledge of God is more complete, and we can live on a whole new level of spirituality.

Aside: To which I say: what sort of nonsense is this? Nobody can become more than a beginner Christian without going through a full-on "dark night of the soul?" Come on. I don't believe that, and there's no biblical evidence for that. This is Scazzero (and possibly St. John of the Cross, although I haven't read his work so I won't level any accusations at him) making things up. He's just making things up.

A person who makes it through their Wall (aka their dark night of the soul) will have the following spiritual benefits:

  1. A greater level of brokenness - less judgemental and more humble
  2. A greater appreciation for Holy Unknowing (Mystery)
  3. A deeper ability to wait for God
  4. A greater detachment - more focus on eternity, "free from the dominating power of things"

Thoughts: I am deeply disappointed in this chapter. I understand that going through trials can strengthen our faith, but this idea that we must absolutely go through a dark night of the soul or remain baby Christians forever is not true. I don't even see how it connects with the main point of this book, which is emotionally healthy spirituality. Is Scazzero trying to tell us we can only get emotionally and spiritually healthy if we've undergone a months- or years-long trial sent by God to deepen our faith? If so, then why does he bother writing this book? If not, why is he introducing the concept of a dark night of the soul? This is baffling. And it's untrue.

Chapter 5: Enlarge Your Soul Through Grief and Loss
Surrendering to Your Limits
Using Job as a biblical example, Scazzero talks about the need to properly grieve over losses in our life. Every culture has different modes of expressing grief, but it's important to express it. Scazzero warns against the temptation to use addiction to numb the pain and avoid fully grieving. He mentions other ways that we block out the pain of loss and suffering: denial, minimizing, blaming others, blaming ourselves, rationalizing, intellectualizing, distracting, and becoming hostile. But these are blocks to spiritual and emotional growth, because they prevent us from confronting the loss and grieving fully.

Scazzero goes back to Job to show a healthy way through grief. We must:

  1. Pay Attention - that is, pay attention to our grief and sadness. Work it out before God. Express the anger, and sadness, the grief, and confusion. If we don't, the feelings will still be there, and they will "leak out" of us in destructive ways.
  2. Wait in the Confusing In-Between - Don't be satisfied with false explanations like those offered by Job's three friends. Be patient, and wait for God to work, even when it seems there is no answer. Don't demand answers when there are none.
  3. Embrace the Gift of Limits - Do less. Understand our limitations, and recognize that we are not the center of the universe. The world will get along without us while we step back and take the time to grieve.
  4. Climb the Ladder of Humility - this is based on the work of St. Benedict, who developed a twelve-point ladder. Scazzero adapts this into an eight-step ladder:
    • Step 1: Fear of God and Mindfulness of Him
    • Step 2: Doing God's Will (Not Our Own or Other People's)
    • Step 3: Willing to Subject Ourselves to the Direction of Others
    • Step 4: Patient to Accept the Difficulties of Others
    • Step 5: Radical Honesty to Others About Our Weaknesses/Faults
    • Step 6: Deeply Aware of Being "Chief of All Sinnes"
    • Step 7: Purposeful to Speak Less (And With More Restraint)
    • Step 8: Transformed Into the Love of God

Scazzero seems to have forgotten about Job now, because he doesn't tie the gift of limits or the ladder of humility in with anything Job did…except that suddenly, Scazzero brings Job back and says that everything is demonstrated in the example of Job, and that God's restoration of Job is the new birth and blessings we can expect (in God's time, naturally, not ours) when we've made it through the sufferings and loss.

Response: Job is a great biblical example to turn to when studying grief. I'm concerned, though, that Scazzero has lost the plot. He wants to use Job as a support example for his model of the stage of grief, but Job doesn't fit Scazzero's model. That's why Scazzero drops any mention of Job for quite a while. But to then come back and claim that the story of Job illustrates every step of his model is dishonest. It's not that I dislike Scazzero's model--to the contrary, it seems a reasonable one. Scazzero is just not using the Bible with care. He's using it as a prop to justify what he's already determined to teach. I want to reach out and tell Scazzero that it's OK to just teach something that is true and useful, and not pretend it's in the Bible. God has given us wisdom and understanding, and not everything has to be hung on the bones of a Bible story.

Chapter 6: Discover the Rhythms of the Daily Office and Sabbath
Stopping to Breathe the Air of Eternity
Scazzero introduces the practices of the Daily Office and the Sabbath. They are "ropes that lead us back to God in the blizzards of life." Rather than adding another chore or item to our to-do list—which is often what more Bible study, or another prayer group, or a small group, or therapy, or whatever—these time-worn and tested Christian practices can help us slow down, calm down, and remain grounded in God.

The Daily Office is a ritual wherein we spend regular periods of each day in prayer and meditation. Rather than one quiet time of study and reflection, there are seven: Vigil, Lauds, Prime, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline. The idea is that repetition and regularity help us maintain an awareness of God's presence throughout the day. Now, Scazzero says we should not get too hung up on the legalism of making sure we hit all seven every day. And they don't have to be long. They can be anywhere from two to twenty minutes. The important thing is that each Daily Office should have these elements:

  • Stopping - We should be unhurried.
  • Centering - "Be still, and know that I am God."
  • Silence - shut off the outward and inner voices.
  • Scripture

Most importantly, Scazzero says that we should find what works for us. Each of us is unique, and what may work for one individual may not work for another. But find a rhythm that works, and do it with regularity.

Next, Sabbath. Regular periods of rest are important. Scazzero has four principles for a biblical Sabbath too:

  • Stop
  • Rest
  • Delight
  • Contemplate

In addition to weekly sabbath rests, Scazzero suggests yearly sabbath vacations, and for those in ministry, a longer sabbath from ministry is appropriate every six to seven years.

Thoughts: I have few complaints about this chapter. I like the idea of the Daily Office, although I've not truly attempted it yet. Weekly sabbaths is something I've kinda-sorta tried, but still am still working on. I don't know that Scazzero tied this into the concept of emotional maturity very well; he didn't connect the dots as clearly as he could have. But I like that this chapter has practical advice taken from historic Christian teaching and practice.

Chapter 7: Grow Into an Emotionally Mature Adult
Learning New Skills to Love Well
It's curious that the title of this chapter is Grow Into an Emotionally Mature Adult, because isn't that what the whole book is purportedly about?

Scazzero lists some characteristics that typify emotional infants, emotional children, emotional adolescents, and emotional adults. In brief: emotional infants are motivated by instant gratification and need others to look after them. Emotional children are OK when they get what they want but are unable to handle disappointment, conflict, and stress. Emotional adolescents keep score, are critical of others, and blame others for their problems. Emotional adults can handle conflict without taking it personally, can advocate for their needs without being combative, and can assess and make allowances for others needs and abilities.

So, how does a person become an emotional adult? Scazzero is glad you asked because he has the answer. It requires a Copernican revolution in the way we view other people. We need to move out of a narcissistic worldview. Instead of viewing other people as revolving around us (the main character), we learn to view them as fully distinct human beings who are just as much the main character as we are. (The "main character" language is mine, not Scazzero's, but I trust it communicates what he's saying.)

Scazzero puts it another way: instead of interacting with people in an I-It relationship (where we treat people as objects or tools, a means to an end), we need to see them, see their humanity, and interact with them in I-Thou relationships.

We also must handle conflict well. Resist the temptation to achieve a false peace by ignoring conflict. Ignoring conflict is not true peacemaking. That just pushes the conflict beneath the surface and leads to resentment, anger, and causes bigger problems later. Instead, bring the conflict out into the open and resolve it. Scazzero spends the rest of the chapter explaining some ground rules on how to maturely handle conflict and disagreement.

  1. Speak and listen well. When you speak, talk about your own feelings and your own desires, not assumptions you have about the other person's feelings, desires, or motives. Speak clearly, in short sentences, and make sure that the other person understands you. When you are listening, don't interrupt; allow the other person to communicate his complete thoughts. When he's done, ensure you understand what he's said by repeating his words back to him, or summarizing them. The goal here is that each person gets to calmly express himself or herself, and each person understands what the other has said.
  2. Bill of Rights (respect each other's rights). For example, everybody has the right to space and privacy; to their own preferences, likes, and dislikes; to disagree with others; to be heard; to be taken seriously; to be given the benefit of the doubt; to be told the truth; to be consulted; to be imperfect and make mistakes; to be respected; and to be treated courteously and honorably.
  3. Stop mind reading. Don't make assumptions about others, particularly their motives. Ask them (respectfully, not accusingly.)
  4. Clarify expectations. A major source of conflict is unconscious, unrealistic, unspoken, or un-agreed-upon expectations. So be conscious of them, make sure they're realistic, speak them, and come to an agreement on them. Talk to people, discuss.
  5. Allergies and triggers. Recognize that due to our past experiences, we all have particular situations and events that will trigger strong emotional feelings. Recognize these, and verbalize them. Once we know what these are, we can react in more appropriate ways.

Thoughts: A solid chapter. Scazzero gives specific advice for how to embrace and resolve conflict. Possibly there is more to being an emotionally mature adult than just conflict management and resolution, but it's a big one and it's probably the one to start with.

Chapter 8: Go the Next Step to Develop a "Rule of Life"
Loving Christ Above All Else
To grow spiritually, we should develop and live according to a Rule of Life. This is not a Rule in the sense of a law or command to follow, but in the sense of a ruler or guide. Scazzero gives the analogy of a trellis that guides a plant's growth. A fully-developed Rule of Life will guide our spiritual growth.

The Rule of Life can (and should) be customized for each individual. Tweak it as necessary. Scazzero gives an example (page 194) that we can use as a starting point to develop our own Rule.

Thoughts: This chapter seems…unconnected with the rest of the book. I'm also not clear on whether we should be developing and using this Rule of Life immediately, or only after we've made progress and become emotionally healthy. Presumably we can start doing it immediately. But if so, why wait until this final, very brief chapter to mention it? This just doesn't seem to jibe with the rest of what Scazzero is trying to convey. I will just pretend the book ended with chapter 7.

Classic Literature Book Review

 Moby-Dick; or, the Whale

by Herman Melville
Reviewed date: 2023 Aug 4
Rating: 2
654 pages
cover art

Moby Dick is better than Lord Jim. It's got an actual plot told in an actual straightforward way. Yes, with a lot of digressions, but this is way better than the circumlocutions that Conrad employs in Lord Jim to obscure the fact that it has no plot.

Moby Dick would be better if most of the whale-related rot was cut out. I mean the digressions from the plot, not the part about Ahab's monomaniacal quest to find and kill the white whale. Keep that part. But all the other stuff, throw it out. I know the literary purists disagree and say that if you remove the whale-industry digressions and the whale-history digressions, the book would be totally different. And they're right. If that stuff was removed, Moby-Dick would be a better book.

Then again, as I listened to the book on a long cross-country drive, I didn't mind the long digressions. It killed time, and Melville's writing is fantastic. He sure has a way with words.

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